2010. szeptember 15., szerda

4C: Calvaria Catholic Church Cluj

In a small village near medieval Cluj, was raised in the eleventh century a Benedictine abbey surrounded by a wall of defense. The abbey was named Monasterium Beatae Mariae of Clus and the village Monostor. This was the foundation that was built on what has been preserved and is today known as Calvaria Catholic Church, dedicated to St. Mary. With an oval formed fortification and built on a hill, the church had ditches to the south, east and west, to north there is a natural steep slope. Historical sources define the years 1060 - 1063 during King Bela I, as the founding period of the abbey.

The building has lived many periods of increase and decline. Initially it was a basilica with three naves, which was subordinate to the Archdiocese of Esztergom. The monastery was destroyed in 1241 after the Tartar invasion and rebuilt by King Béla IV in 1263. In 1581 Prince Stephen Bathory gave the monastery to the Jesuit Order. Another sad episode in the history of the monastery was written during the Tartar invasion of 1658-1661 when it was again destroyed. In the eighteenth-century the building was used as a weapons depot, thus its destruction has been accelerated.


In 1896 the Roman Catholic Diocese of Transylvania rebuilt and restored the ship of the church and the vaults and walls of the choir. In 1922 the buliding was rented to the Greek Catholic Church for a symbolic amount, the Roman Catholic Church retained the ownership rights. After the Communists came in 1948, the church was given to the Romanian Orthodox Church, which used it until 1990. Since 1994 the building belongs to the Roman Catholic Church again. Access is via the hill on the south-east corner of Calvaria. At entry, the two buildings are the Calvary Chapel built in 1831, and the Bell Tower designed by Károly Kós in 1922.

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